Alexandria is a city in Egypt on the coast of the Mediterranean at the end of the Nile River delta. It was the greatest city of the ancient world and the leading centre for Greek scholarship, science and maths. Alexandria was founded by the emperor Alexander the Great in 332 BC and is named after him. Alexander the Great used it as a naval base from which to control all of the Mediterranean. He chose Alexandria because it had a good supply of fresh water and was a good port for ship to anchor in. After Alexander's death in 323 BC his general Ptolemy Soter took charge as ruler. Ptolemy Soter was followed by 15 other rulers, who were all called Ptolemy at well. The last one was Ptolemy Caesar, the son of Julius Caesar, the Roman Emperor, and Cleopatra, the Queen of Egypt.

The leading mathematicians Euclid , Archimedes, and Cladius Ptolemaeus all lived and worked in Alexandria because it had the best library and museum in the world.